Simon Brown.

It is not my purpose to force you to agree or believe with what’s on my websites, but rather to share my research. As the record goes: I'm Just a soul whose intentions are good. Oh Lord, please don’t let me be misunderstood. I do not write to share my research because I desire to be rich, famous, or powerful, but because investigating, studying, enquiring exploring, analysing and scrutinising, helps me learn what I don’t know. I simply love seeking, searching and researching, to discover the truth that is so rare, and become full of joy, uncovering the truth of our great GOD, and His Son’s hidden treasures, which has since caused me to become trapped in GOD’s divine love, who cannot turn back. I am Simon Brown. Amen.

Adverts are not owned by me Simon Brown. I am no longer a Trinitarian, and an independent researcher in no denomination.

Anyone with ears to hear should listen and understand! Matthew 11:15.

Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the
SON of God?
1 John 5:5.
NOT GOD OR A TRINITY, but as St john has said: but he that believeth that Jesus is the SON of God? 1 John 5:5.
And as Jesus has said: ETERNAL LIFE is believing His Father GOD is the only ONE TRUE GOD alone. John 17:3. Which is the FIRST commandment one MUST believe. Mark 12:29.

Trinitarians please read Hebrews 5:11-12. About this we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the basic principles of the oracles of God. You need milk, not solid food.

False Prophets and Teachers

1 But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. 2 And many will follow their sensuality, and because of them the way of truth will be blasphemed. 3 And in their greed they will exploit you with false words. Their condemnation from long ago is not idle, and their destruction is not asleep. 2 Peter 2:

And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD and said: “O LORD, the God of Israel, enthroned above the cherubim, you are THE God, you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; you have made heaven and earth. 2 Kings 19:15.

Dear friends, just to remind you, as I am a human being, I am capable of making mistakes. If you believe I am wrong, don't let it go, but please be kind and let me know. Thank you.

But examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good. 1 Thessalonians 5:21.

Tuesday, 13 December 2016



Follow my research and I will show you, something you will believe that isn't true.
 It is called: 
Glossolalia or speaking in tongues.
 According to linguists, is the fluid vocalizing of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning, in some cases as part of religious practice in which it is believed to be a divine language unknown to the speaker.[1] The term derives from glōssais lalō, a Greek phrase used in the New Testament meaning "speak in, with, or by tongues [i.e., other languages]" (Acts 2:4, 1 Corinthians 14:18). The related term “xenolalia” or "xenoglossy" is used to describe the phenomenon when the language being spoken is a natural language previously unknown to the speaker.[2] Glossolalia is practiced in Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity as well as in other religions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
1. "Glossolalia n." A Dictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
2. Cheryl Bridges Johns and Frank Macchia, “Glossolalia,” The Encyclopedia of Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003), 413.
Since leaving the Trinity faith, my eyes have become WIDE open, and I just can’t stop seeing things that I could never SEE before. For instance, I now SEE the MASSIVE amount of contradictions, not to mention the unbiblical doctrines and teachings that are found in most churches today, which when carefully examined and researched, seem more likely to be the prophecies being fulfilled as told in 1 Timothy 4:1: 
Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons. 1 Timothy 4:1

Have Christians told you that unless you talk in TONGUES you are not saved?
Well, this is what the Oneness Pentecostalism teach, who also contradict the word of GOD. The Trinity faith, on the other hand, do not teach this but they still practice it, and talking in TONGUES is still rampant in most churches, as we speak English today.
And yet St Paul said that speaking in tongues is NOT the fruit of the Holy Spirit.
But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, Galatians 5:22. English Standard Version
I must admit, talking in TONGUES is not something I have researched or studied much myself, and in this article I will only touch on the surface, but it is a topic that is widely debated.

From what I’ve been told, what I’ve read, and what I’ve studied, the ability to talk in TONGUES was given to certain Christians in order to preach the Gospel to people of different languages – and, in those days, there wasn’t any easy way of learning and therefore talking in lots of different languages. 
Of course, now we’re living 2000 years later, in a time where technology is so advanced that anyone can go on the Internet, and with a simple click of a button they can have the whole Gospel downloaded and translated into hundreds of languages in an instant.

When I was a Trinitarian (for 10 years), there was one thing that my wife Emma and I simply did not do in the church, and that was talk in TONGUES.
 Whenever we heard people talking in TONGUES we accepted it, even though it always made us both feel uncomfortable; we still wanted to respect whatever others liked to do, but in all honesty, we always felt that it wasn’t right.

My wife and I used to look at each other whenever this happened and say that we’d been ‘beamed up, Scotty’, and whenever we took Emma’s mum with us to church (as she was a sceptic and we wanted her to come to know Jesus) I used to get very nervous. I was always prepared to look the opposite way if and when people started talking in TONGUES, but there were far worse and strange behaviours going on in the churches – none of which made them look like a respectable, quiet place to learn about and worship GOD.

At first we learned something we were definitely not expecting; 
countless times my wife and I nearly got knocked out by people who said they were filled with the Holy Spirit.
 They would just be peacefully praying to God with their usual love and respect, and then – unexpectedly, and without warning – they would suddenly explode, screaming and shouting, spinning and jumping, laughing and crying, and making the strangest and loudest noises I’d ever heard. It was as if hundreds of demons had just entered the church and then entered their bodies.
Often I would go to grab my phone to call an ambulance and report a heart attack, until I released that the symptoms weren’t those of a heart attack at all, but were in fact more like the story told about Jesus who Healed a Man with a Demon.

Thank God the pastors eventually intervened and started to restrain the mad unbiblical activity, before health and safety turned up and the insurance premiums went through the roof from people being literally knocked off their feet.
 This got me thinking: is there anywhere in the Bible that teaches us that the Holy Spirit makes Christians act like lunatics, jumping up and down, laughing and screaming, and generally being almost out of control?
Well, oddly enough, after some research I did find it written that a man behaved like a lunatic – similar to what had been happening in the churches – and that he had to be bound with shackles and chains. The Spirit this man had was not the Holy Spirit, however, but an unclean spirit:

Jesus Heals a Man with a Demon 
1 They came to the other side of the sea, to the country of the Gerasenes. 2 And when Jesus had stepped out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit. 3 He lived among the tombs. And no one could bind him anymore, not even with a chain, 4 for he had often been bound with shackles and chains, but he wrenched the chains apart, and he broke the shackles in pieces. No one had the strength to subdue him. 5 Night and day among the tombs and on the mountains he was always crying out and cutting himself with stones. 6 And when he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and fell down before him.7 And crying out with a loud voice, he said, “What have you to do with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, do not torment me.” 8 For he was saying to him, “Come out of the man, you unclean spirit!” 9 And Jesus asked him, “What is your name?” He replied, “My name is Legion, for we are many.” 10 And he begged him earnestly not to send them out of the country. 11 Now a great herd of pigs was feeding there on the hillside, 12 and they begged him, saying, “Send us to the pigs; let us enter them.” 13 So he gave them permission. And the unclean spirits came out and entered the pigs; and the herd, numbering about two thousand, rushed down the steep bank into the sea and drowned in the sea. Matthew 4:24 

In fact, 1 Peter 5:8 tells us how we should behave, and it is the complete opposite to the way most Christians are behaving in most churches today.
Let’s have a look, shall we?
Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. 1 Peter 5:8.

Now, let’s have a look at what Peter meant by being sober-minded: 
Strong's Concordance 
néphó: to be sober, to abstain from wine
 Original Word: νήφω
 Part of Speech: Verb 
Transliteration: néphó 
Phonetic Spelling: (nay'-fo) 
Short Definition: I am calm, vigilant, sober.
 Definition: (lit: I am sober), I am calm (vigilant), circumspect.

So, there we have it in one single scripture – Peter was saying be: calm and vigilant, and not explode all over the place and nearly knock people out in the process.
Fortunately, that madness came to an end – well, at least it did in the church we were in. 

But what about TALKING IN TONGUES?
 If Trinitarians do not know or understand what they are saying – as they claim, which clearly seems to be the case – then that is quite worrying as it raises some serious questions: what are they saying? Who are they praising? And if they are not preaching to foreigners, then what exactly are they achieving by doing this? Plus, if they don’t know what they’re saying, they could be saying anything – they could even be blaspheming.

Rather than BABBLING, I would rather be confident in what I’m saying, by witnessing to my own heart, hearing with my own ears, and knowing what words I’m actually saying when I pray to my God. This way I can be sure that I am telling him I want to please, love, and praise Him, and to confirm to my own soul, by hearing from my own lips, the actual name of my GOD, and being absolutely sure that I am not addressing the wrong God, but the ONE TRUE GOD.

St Paul said in 1 Corinthians 14:1 to 12:

Prophecy and Tongues
1 Pursue love, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy. 2 For one who speaks in a tongue speaks not to men but to God; for no one understands him, but he utters mysteries in the Spirit. 3 On the other hand, the one who prophesies speaks to people for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation. 4 The one who speaks in a tongue builds up himself, but the one who prophesies builds up the church. 5 Now I want you all to speak in tongues, but even more to prophesy. The one who prophesies is greater than the one who speaks in tongues, unless someone interprets, so that the church may be built up.
 6 Now, brothers, if I come to you speaking in tongues, how will I benefit you unless I bring you some revelation or knowledge or prophecy or teaching? 7 If even lifeless instruments, such as the flute or the harp, do not give distinct notes, how will anyone know what is played? 8 And if the bugle gives an indistinct sound, who will get ready for battle? 9 So with yourselves, if with your tongue you utter speech that is not intelligible, how will anyone know what is said? For you will be speaking into the air. 10 There are doubtless many different languages in the world, and none is without meaning, 11 but if I do not know the meaning of the language, I will be a foreigner to the speaker and the speaker a foreigner to me. 12 So with yourselves, since you are eager for manifestations of the Spirit, strive to excel in building up the church.

Trinitarians say that they are edifying the body of Christ, and yet they have no idea what they are actually BLABBING on about. When no one else can understand them either, it’s hard to see what the point of it all is. 
If you know of anyone who has converted a foreigner to Jesus by talking gibberish, then please do let me know – then they can convert and teach me how to talk in TONGUES.
I simply do not believe in this day and age that talking in BABBLE is evidence of having the Holy Spirit, but it may be evidence of having the wrong spirit.

During my studies, I noticed that St Paul had much more to say about people talking in tongues.
 So, let’s have a look – and don’t forget to meet me again at the end! 
1 Corinthians 14:13 to 33: 
13 Therefore, one who speaks in a tongue should pray that he may interpret. 14 For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays but my mind is unfruitful. 15 What am I to do? I will pray with my spirit, but I will pray with my mind also; I will sing praise with my spirit, but I will sing with my mind also. 16 Otherwise, if you give thanks with your spirit, how can anyone in the position of an outsider say “Amen” to your thanksgiving when he does not know what you are saying? 17 For you may be giving thanks well enough, but the other person is not being built up. 18 I thank God that I speak in tongues more than all of you. 19 Nevertheless, in church I would rather speak five words with my mind in order to instruct others, than ten thousand words in a tongue.
20 Brothers, do not be children in your thinking. Be infants in evil, but in your thinking be mature. 21 In the Law it is written, “By people of strange tongues and by the lips of foreigners will I speak to this people, and even then they will not listen to me, says the Lord.” 22 Thus tongues are a sign not for believers but for unbelievers, while prophecy is a sign not for unbelievers but for believers. 23 If, therefore, the whole church comes together and all speak in tongues, and outsiders or unbelievers enter, will they not say that you are out of your minds? 24 But if all prophesy, and an unbeliever or outsider enters, he is convicted by all, he is called to account by all, 25 the secrets of his heart are disclosed, and so, falling on his face, he will worship God and declare that God is really among you.
Orderly Worship
26 What then, brothers? When you come together, each one has a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let all things be done for building up. 27 If any speak in a tongue, let there be only two or at most three, and each in turn, and let someone interpret. 28 But if there is no one to interpret, let each of them keep silent in church and speak to himself and to God. 29 Let two or three prophets speak, and let the others weigh what is said. 30 If a revelation is made to another sitting there, let the first be silent. 31 For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and all be encouraged, 32 and the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. 33 For God is not a God of confusion but of peace.

Did you notice what St Paul said in the verse 27? If any speak in a tongue, let there be only two or at most three, and each in turn, and let someone interpret.
For 10 years when I was in my Trinity faith-based church, there were not only two or at most three people talking in tongues, but handfuls of people all at once, and sometimes nearly everyone in the church talked in tongues, but NEVER each in turn – they did it all together.
My wife and I used to think we were freaks because we were very much in the minority of people who did not talk in tongues.

And it gets worse. St Paul then goes on to say: and let someone interpret.
 Well, that’s amazing, isn’t it? Because in the whole of my 10 years in my Trinity faith-based church, my wife Emma and I have never, ever seen a single person interpret what has been said in tongues, and that is very much still the case today.
 Now I think it’s time to move on and say no more of that.

Does St Paul say below in 1 Corinthians 13:8 that talking in TONGUES is no more Biblical and would CEASE?
Love never ends. As for prophecies, they will pass away; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will pass away.

Now, what did Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible have to say about talking in TONGUES TODAY?
Whether there be tongues they shall cease; not but that, in the resurrection, that member of the body, the tongue, will be restored as the rest, and be everlastingly employed in celebrating the perfections of God, in singing the hallelujahs of the Lamb, and in joining with angels and other saints in songs of praise to the eternal Three; but the gift of speaking with divers tongues will cease, indeed it has already; nor will there be any use for such an extraordinary gift in the other world; when probably, and as it is thought by some, there will be but one language, and that the Hebrew language; as the whole earth was of one language and speech before the confusion at Babel.

Now, let’s look at that again – 
what did Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible say? But the gift of speaking with divers tongues will cease, indeed it has already.If you watch the videos below, we can very easily see that 2000 years later, speaking with divers tongues has definitely NOT CEASED, and is CLEARLY uncontrolled and widespread. 

Most churches today do not seem to be a place of true biblical practices, and the pastors clearly do not practice what they PREACH or TEACH – which is written and taught in the Holy Bible – but instead they act like they are running a commercial business and CIRCUS. 

This then leads us to yet another unbiblical subject that is widespread in most Trinity churches today, known as PROSPERITY PREACHING. Maybe I’ll write about that another day.

Now, this is amazing. During my research for the truth about why people talk in tongues TODAY, I discovered an interesting and undeniable fact that demonstrates that talking in tongues TODAY cannot possibly prove that one has the Holy Spirit or is the only faith who is saved.

WHY? you may ask. Well, the people who talk in tongues TODAY will tell us that talking in tongues is evidence of having the Holy Spirit LIVING within them, with that faith – and every other faith – also saying that they are the only true faith who are saved.

I found this written in the following:

‘20th century Azusa Street Revival.
During the 20th century, glossolalia would primarily become associated with Pentecostalism and the later charismatic movement. The holiness preachers Charles Parham and William Seymour are credited as co-founders of the movement. It was Parham who formulated the doctrine of "initial evidence". After studying the Bible, Parham came to the conclusion that speaking in tongues was the Bible evidence that one had received the baptism with the Holy Spirit.’

Yet, how is it that talking in tongues TODAY is so widespread, with it occurring over so many different types of denominations, who also claim that they practice talking in tongues? These include in the 17th century – Early Quakers, charismatic movements, 19th century – Edward Irving and the Catholic Apostolic Church, The history of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and it was also widespread amongst Mormons and Joseph Smith.

So, if it is true that speaking in tongues is the Bible evidence that one has received the baptism with the Holy Spirit, then there will be a lot of different denominations saved and meeting together in heaven. How lovely.

I have added the source of this information below.

For the time being, as Jesus never spoke in tongues, then neither will I. Also, there is NO recorded person in the entire Bible who has exploded out of control from receiving the ‘gift’ of TONGUES.

I thank God that I speak in tongues more than all of you. Nevertheless, in church I would rather speak five words with my mind in order to instruct others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 1 Corinthians 14:18 -19.

A TREE is known by its FRUIT, said Jesus, as a FAITH is known by its WORKS. Can a good TREE produce BAD fruit? said Jesus.
You decide.

I wonder if the people who do not talk in TONGUES are, in fact, the ones who are going to be saved. Above all, however, I – as does GOD ALMIGHTY – desire and pray for ALL to come to know the truth and to be saved.

John says we are to test the Spirit: Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. 1 John 4:1. Surely, a simple way to test the Spirit (that many claim to possess) would be by talking in TONGUES to all foreigners, and then seeing if they give their lives to Jesus.

That’s what the gift of TONGUES was designed for, so if foreigners cannot understand what they are BLABBING on about, then I would wonder what kind of spirit is actually in them. Surely, if a person has the Holy Spirit, and they talk in TONGUES to foreigners, they will know and be converted in front of our eyes, and I believe that would be the CLEAR evidence of the RIGHT Spirit. As far as I know, that hasn’t happened yet.

I am Simon Brown. 

May GOD bless you, and help you know the truth, whatever denomination you belong to.
Speaking in Tongues EXPOSED! Pentecostal Speaking in Tongues Exposed by the Word of God.
Published on 6 Jul 2015
Exposing the modern day speaking in tongues movement and showing what the Bible actually says about it. People today that are doing this are either faking it or are actually demon possessed. When the Bible is talking about speaking with other tongues it is talking about speaking in different languages that are actually spoken and understood by people in the world.

Published on 17 Feb 2015

This video includes facts about speaking in tongues (glossolalia) which is practiced by Pentecostal and Charismatic churches. I compare this practice to what the God's Word, the Bible, has to say about the gift of tongues. Some even go so far as to claim that tongues is evidence that you have been baptized in the Holy Spirit and are saved. However, it's real purpose is to aid in preaching the gospel to hasten Jesus' return. Language experts have analyzed glossolalia and reject it as a language. Many Christians go so far as to claim it is a Satanic counterfeit and a demonic deception of the last days. 

Glossolalia even has Pagan origins. And it's not only Christians that speak in tongues. So do some Mormons, devil-possessed spiritists, heathen witch doctors in Africa and Asia. The phenomenon of modern day tongues even shows signs of demonic possession. And modern day tongues are aiding the union of Catholics and Protestants. Mini documentary, exposed, false, cult.


It must be noted: Not all Trinitarians believe in talking in Tongues TODAY.
Here is a hard core committed dedicated Trinitarian web site.

20th Century Tongues... Faith or Fake?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia link here
"Speaking in Tongues" redirects here. For other uses, see Speaking in Tongues (disambiguation).
"Tongues" redirects here. For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation).
For the album by Steve Walsh, see Glossolalia (album).
The Theotokos & the Twelve Apostles — Fifty Days after the Resurrection of Christ, awaiting the descent of the Holy Spirit
Icon depicting apostles and the Theotokos filled with the Holy Spirit (notice fire symbol above their heads.)
Glossolalia or speaking in tongues, according to linguists, is the fluid vocalizing of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning, in some cases as part of religious practice in which it is believed to be a divine language unknown to the speaker.[1] The term derives from glōssais lalō, a Greek phrase used in the New Testament meaning "speak in, with, or by tongues [i.e., other languages]" (Acts 2:41 Corinthians 14:18). The related term “xenolalia” or "xenoglossy" is used to describe the phenomenon when the language being spoken is a natural language previously unknown to the speaker.[2]Glossolalia is practiced in Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity as well as in other religions.


"Glossolalia" is constructed from the Greek word γλωσσολαλία, itself a compound of the words γλῶσσα (glossa), meaning "tongue" or "language"[3] and λαλέω (laleō), "to speak, talk, chat, prattle, or to make a sound".[4] The Greek expression (in various forms) appears in the New Testament in the books of Acts and First Corinthians.
The exact phrase "speaking in tongues" has been used at least since the translation of the New Testament into Middle English in the Wycliffe Bible in the 14th century.[5] Frederic Farrar first used the word "glossolalia" in 1879.[6]


In 1972, William J. Samarin, a linguist from the University of Toronto, published a thorough assessment of Pentecostal glossolalia that became a classic work on its linguistic characteristics.[7] His assessment was based on a large sample of glossolalia recorded in public and private Christian meetings in Italy, The Netherlands, Jamaica, Canada and the US over the course of five years; his wide range included the Puerto Ricans of the Bronx, the Snake Handlers of the Appalachians and the Spiritual Christians from Russia in Los Angeles (Pryguny, Dukhizhizniki).
Samarin found that glossolalic speech does resemble human language in some respects. The speaker uses accent, rhythm, intonation and pauses to break up the speech into distinct units. Each unit is itself made up of syllables, the syllables being formed from consonants and vowels taken from a language known to the speaker:
It is verbal behaviour that consists of using a certain number of consonants and vowels[...]in a limited number of syllables that in turn are organized into larger units that are taken apart and rearranged pseudogrammatically[...]with variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity.[8]
[Glossolalia] consists of strings of syllables, made up of sounds taken from all those that the speaker knows, put together more or less haphazardly but emerging nevertheless as word-like and sentence-like units because of realistic, language-like rhythm and melody.[9]
That the sounds are taken from the set of sounds already known to the speaker is confirmed by others. Felicitas Goodman, a psychological anthropologist and linguist, also found that the speech of glossolalists reflected the patterns of speech of the speaker's native language.[10]
Samarin found that the resemblance to human language was merely on the surface and so concluded that glossolalia is "only a facade of language".[11] He reached this conclusion because the syllable string did not form words, the stream of speech was not internally organized, and – most importantly of all – there was no systematic relationship between units of speech and concepts. Humans use language to communicate but glossolalia does not. Therefore, he concluded that glossolalia is not "a specimen of human language because it is neither internally organized nor systematically related to the world man perceives".[11] On the basis of his linguistic analysis, Samarin defined Pentecostal glossolalia as "meaningless but phonologically structured human utterance, believed by the speaker to be a real language but bearing no systematic resemblance to any natural language, living or dead".[12]
Practitioners of glossolalia may disagree with linguistic researchers and claim that they are speaking human languages (xenoglossia). Felicitas Goodman studied a number of Pentecostal communities in the United States, the Caribbean and Mexico; these included English-, Spanish- and Mayan-speaking groups. She compared what she found with recordings of non-Christian rituals from Africa, Borneo, Indonesia and Japan. She took into account both the segmental structure (such as sounds, syllables, phrases) and the supra-segmental elements (rhythm, accent, intonation) and concluded that there was no distinction between what was practised by the Pentecostal Protestants and the followers of other religions.[13]


Classical antiquity[edit]

It was a commonplace idea within the Greco-Roman world that divine beings spoke languages different from human languages, and historians of religion have identified references to esoteric speech in Greco-Roman literature that resemble glossolalia, sometimes explained as angelic or divine language. An example is the account in the Testament of Job where the daughters of Job were given sashes enabling them to speak and sing in angelic languages.[14]
According to Dale B. Martin, glossolalia accorded high status in the ancient world due to its association with the divine. Alexander of Abonoteichus may have exhibited glossolalia during his episodes of prophetic ecstasy.[15] Neoplatonist philosopherIamblichus linked glossolalia to prophecy, writing that prophecy was divine spirit possession that "emits words which are not understood by those that utter them; for they pronounce them, as it is said, with an insane mouth (mainomenό stomati) and are wholly subservient, and entirely yield themselves to the energy of the predominating God."[16]
As part of his attack on early Christianity, the Greek philosopher Celsus may include an account of Christian glossolalia. Celsus describes prophecies made by several Christians in Palestine and Phoenicia of which he writes, "Having brandished these threats they then go on to add incomprehensible, incoherent, and utterly obscure utterances, the meaning of which no intelligent person could discover: for they are meaningless and nonsensical, and give a chance for any fool or sorcerer to take the words in whatever sense he likes."[15]
References to speaking in tongues by the Church fathers are rare. Except for Irenaeus' 2nd-century reference to many in the church speaking all kinds of languages "through the Spirit", and Tertullian's reference in 207 AD to the spiritual gift of interpretation of tongues being encountered in his day, there are no other known first-hand accounts of glossolalia, and very few second-hand accounts among their writings.[17]

400 to 1900[edit]

  • 5th century St. Patrick of Ireland (c. 387–493), in The Confession of St. Patrick, records hearing a strange language being prayed by the Holy Spirit in a dream. St. Patrick says in his book:
And another night – God knows, I do not, whether within me or beside me – most words which I heard and could not understand, except at the end of the speech it was represented thus: 'He who gave his life for you, he it is who speaks within you.' And thus I awoke, joyful.[18]
And on a second occasion I saw Him praying within me, and I was as it were, inside my own body , and I heard Him above me—that is, above my inner self. He was praying powerfully with sighs. And in the course of this I was astonished and wondering, and I pondered who it could be who was praying within me. But at the end of the prayer it was revealed to me that it was the Spirit. And so I awoke and remembered the Apostle's words: "Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we know not how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with sighs too deep for utterance [Romans 8:26]." And again: "The Lord our advocate intercedes for us [Romans 8:27].[18]
  • 12th century – Bernard of Clairvaux, commenting on Mark 16:17 ("they will speak in new tongues"), asked: "For who is there that seems to have these signs of the faith, without which no one, according to this Scripture, shall be saved?"[19] He explained that these signs were no longer present because there were greater miracles – the transformed lives of believers.[citation needed]
  • 12th century – Hildegard of Bingen is reputed to have spoken and sung in tongues. Her spiritual songs were referred to by contemporaries as "concerts in the Spirit."[citation needed]
  • 1265 – Thomas Aquinas wrote about the gift of tongues in the New Testament, which he understood to be an ability to speak every language, given for the purposes of missionary work. He explained that Christ did not have this gift because his mission was to the Jews, "nor does each one of the faithful now speak save in one tongue"; for "no one speaks in the tongues of all nations, because the Church herself already speaks the languages of all nations".[20]
  • 15th century – The Moravians are referred to by detractors as having spoken in tongues. John Roche, a contemporary critic, claimed that the Moravians "commonly broke into some disconnected Jargon, which they often passed upon the vulgar, 'as the exuberant and resistless Evacuations of the Spirit'".[21]
  • 17th century – The French Prophets: The Camisards also spoke sometimes in languages that were unknown: "Several persons of both Sexes," James Du Bois of Montpellier recalled, "I have heard in their Extasies pronounce certain words, which seem'd to the Standers-by, to be some Foreign Language." These utterances were sometimes accompanied by the gift of interpretation exercised, in Du Bois' experience, by the same person who had spoken in tongues.[22][23]
  • 17th century – Early Quakers, such as Edward Burrough, make mention of tongues speaking in their meetings: "We spoke with new tongues, as the Lord gave us utterance, and His Spirit led us".[24]
  • 1817 – In Germany, Gustav von Below, an aristocratic officer of the Prussian Guard, and his brothers, founded a charismatic movement based on their estates in Pomerania, which may have included speaking in tongues.[citation needed]
  • 19th century – Edward Irving and the Catholic Apostolic Church. Edward Irving, a minister in the Church of Scotland, writes of a woman who would "speak at great length, and with superhuman strength, in an unknown tongue, to the great astonishment of all who heard, and to her own great edification and enjoyment in God".[25] Irving further stated that "tongues are a great instrument for personal edification, however mysterious it may seem to us."[this quote needs a citation]
  • 19th century – The history of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), contains extensive references to the phenomenon of speaking in tongues by Brigham YoungJoseph Smith and many others.[26][27] Sidney Rigdon had disagreements with Alexander Campbell regarding speaking in tongues, and later joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Speaking in tongues was recorded in contemporary sources, both hostile and sympathetic to Mormonism, by at least 1830.[28] The practice was soon widespread amongst Mormons, with many rank and file church members believing they were speaking the language of Adam; some of the hostility towards Mormons stemmed from those of other faiths regarding speaking in tongues unfavorably, especially when practiced by children.[28] At the 1836 dedication of the Kirtland Temple the dedicatory prayer asks that God grant them the gift of tongues and at the end of the service Brigham Youngspeaks in tongues, another elder interprets it and then gives his own exhortation in tongues. Many other worship experiences in the Kirtland Temple prior to and after the dedication included references to people speaking and interpreting tongues. In describing the beliefs of the church in the Wentworth letter (1842), Joseph Smith identified a belief of the "gift of tongues" and "interpretation of tongues". The practice of glossolalia by the Latter-day Saints was widespread but after an initial burst of enthusiastic growth circa 1830-34, seems to have been somewhat more restrained than in many other contemporary religious movements.[28] Young, Smith, and numerous other early leaders frequently cautioned against the public exercise of glossolalia unless there was someone who could exercise the corresponding spiritual gift of interpretation of tongues, so that listeners could be edified by what had been said. Although the Latter-day Saints believe that speaking in tongues and the interpretation of tongues are alive and well in the Church, modern Mormons are much more likely to point to the way in which LDS missionaries are trained and learn foreign languages quickly, and are able to communicate rapidly on their missions, as evidence of the manifestation of this gift. This interpretation stems from a 1900 General Conference sermon by Joseph F. Smith which discouraged glossolalia; subsequent leaders echoed this recommendation for about a decade afterwards and subsequently the practice had largely died out amongst Mormons by the 1930s and '40s.[28] The visitor to 21st Century LDS church services will never hear spontaneous, incomprehensible glossolalia as one might overhear at a Pentecostal service.

20th century[edit]

Main article: Azusa Street Revival

Headline about the "Weird babel of tongues" and other behavior at Azusa Street, from a 1906Los Angeles Times newspaper.
During the 20th century, glossolalia would primarily become associated with Pentecostalism and the later charismatic movement. The holiness preachers Charles Parham and William Seymour are credited as co-founders of the movement. It was Parham who formulated the doctrine of "initial evidence". After studying the Bible, Parham came to the conclusion that speaking in tongues was the Bible evidence that one had received the baptism with the Holy Spirit.
In 1900, Parham opened Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas, where he taught initial evidence. During a service on 1 January 1901, a student named Agnes Ozman asked for prayer and the laying on of hands to specifically ask God to fill her with the Holy Spirit. She became the first of many students to experience glossolalia, coincidentally in the first hours of the 20th century. Parham followed within the next few days. Parham called his new movement the Apostolic Faith. In 1905, he moved to Houston and opened a Bible school there. One of his students was William Seymour, an African-American preacher. In 1906, Seymour traveled to Los Angeles where his preaching ignited the Azusa Street Revival. This revival is considered the birth of the global Pentecostal movement. Witnesses at the Azusa Street Revival wrote of seeing fire resting on the heads of participants, miraculous healings in the meetings, and incidents of speaking in tongues being understood by native speakers of the language.[citation needed] According to the first issue of William Seymour's newsletter, "The Apostolic Faith", from 1906:
A Mohammedan, a Soudanese by birth, a [m]an who is an interpreter and speaks six[t]een languages, came into the meetings at Azusa Street and the Lord gave him messages which none but himself could understand. He identified, interpreted and wrote [a] number of the languages.[29]
Parham and his early followers believed that speaking in tongues was xenoglossia, and some followers traveled to foreign countries and tried to use the gift to share the Gospel with non-English-speaking people. These attempts consistently resulted in failure and many of Parham's followers rejected his teachings after being disillusioned with their attempts to speak unlearned foreign languages. Despite these setbacks, belief in xenoglossia persisted into the latter half of the 20th century among Pentecostal groups.[30]
The revival at Azusa Street lasted until around 1915. From it grew many new Pentecostal churches as people visited the services in Los Angeles and took their newfound beliefs to communities around the United States and abroad. During the 20th century, glossolalia became an important part of the identity of these religious groups. During the 1960s, the charismatic movement within the mainline Protestant churches and among charismatic Roman Catholics would adopt some Pentecostal beliefs, and the practice of glossolalia would spread to other Christian denominations. The discussion regarding tongues has permeated many branches of the Protestantism, particularly since the widespread Charismatic Movement in the 1960s. Many books have been published either defending[31] or attacking[32] the practice.


Theological explanations[edit]

In Christianity, a supernatural explanation for glossolalia is advocated by some and rejected by others.
  • Glossolalists could, apart from those practicing glossolalia, also mean all those Christians who believe that the Pentecostal/charismatic glossolalia practiced today is the "speaking in tongues" described in the New Testament. They believe that it is a miraculous charism or spiritual gift. Glossolalists claim that these tongues can be both real, unlearned languages (i.e., xenoglossia)[33][34] as well as a "language of the spirit", a "heavenly language", or perhaps the language of angels.[35]
  • Cessationists believe that all the miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit ceased to occur early in Christian history, and therefore that the speaking in tongues practised today is simply the utterance of meaningless syllables. It is neither xenoglossia nor miraculous, but rather learned behavior, possibly self-induced. These believe that what the New Testament described as "speaking in tongues" was xenoglossia, a miraculous spiritual gift through which the speaker could communicate in natural languages not previously studied.
Proponents of each viewpoint use the biblical writings and historical arguments to support their positions.

Biblical practice[edit]

There are five places in the New Testament where speaking in tongues is referred to explicitly:
  • Mark 16:17, which records the instructions of Christ to the apostles, including his description that "they will speak with new tongues" as a sign that would follow "them that believe" in him.
  • Acts 2, which describes an occurrence of speaking in tongues in Jerusalem at Pentecost, though with various interpretations. Specifically, "every man heard them speak in his own language" and wondered "how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born?"
  • Acts 10:46, when the household of Cornelius in Caesarea spoke in tongues, and those present compared it to the speaking in tongues that occurred at Pentecost.
  • Acts 19:6, when a group of approximately a dozen men spoke in tongues in Ephesus as they received the Holy Spirit while the apostle Paul laid his hands upon them.
  • 1 Cor 121314, where Paul discusses speaking in "various kinds of tongues" as part of his wider discussion of the gifts of the Spirit; his remarks shed some light on his own speaking in tongues as well as how the gift of speaking in tongues was to be used in the church.
Other verses by inference may be considered to refer to "speaking in tongues", such as Isaiah 28:11Romans 8:26 and Jude 20.
The biblical account of Pentecost in the second chapter of the book of Acts describes the sound of a mighty rushing wind and "divided tongues like fire" coming to rest on the apostles. The text further describes that "they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak in other languages". It goes on to say in verses 5-11 that when the Apostles spoke, each person in attendance "heard their own language being spoken". Therefore, the gift of speaking in tongues refers to the Apostles' speaking languages that the people listening heard as "them telling in our own tongues the mighty works of God". Glossolalists and cessationists both recognize this as xenoglossia, a miraculous ability that marked their baptism in the Holy Spirit. Something similar (although perhaps not xenoglossia) took place on at least two subsequent occasions, in Caesarea and Ephesus.
Glossolalists and cessationists generally agree that the primary purpose of the gift of speaking in tongues was to mark the Holy Spirit being poured out. At Pentecost the Apostle Peter declared that this gift, which was making some in the audience ridicule the disciples as drunks, was the fulfilment of the prophecy of Joel which described that God would pour out his Spirit on all flesh (Acts 2:17).[34]
Despite these commonalities, there are significant variations in interpretation.
  • Universal. The traditional Pentecostal view is that every Christian should expect to be baptized in the Holy Spirit, the distinctive mark of which is glossolalia.[36] While most Protestants agree that baptism in the Holy Spirit is integral to being a Christian, others[37] believe that it is not separable from conversion and no longer marked by glossolalia. Pentecostals appeal to the declaration of the Apostle Peter at Pentecost, that "the gift of the Holy Spirit" was "for you and for your children and for all who are far off" (Acts 2:38-39). Cessationists reply that the gift of speaking in tongues was never for all (1 Cor 12:30). In response to those who say that the Baptism in the Holy Spirit is not a separate experience from conversion, Pentecostals appeal to the question asked by the Apostle Paul to the Ephesian believers "Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed?" (Acts 19:2).
  • One gift. Different aspects of speaking in tongues appear in Acts and 1 Corinthians, such that the Assemblies of God declare that the gift in Acts "is the same in essence as the gift of tongues" in 1 Corinthians "but different in purpose and use".[36]They distinguish between (private) speech in tongues when receiving the gift of the Spirit, and (public) speech in tongues for the benefit of the church. Others assert that the gift in Acts was "not a different phenomenon" but the same gift being displayed under varying circumstances.[38] The same description – "speaking in tongues" – is used in both Acts and 1 Corinthians, and in both cases the speech is in an unlearned language.
  • Direction. The New Testament describes tongues largely as speech addressed to God, but also as something that can potentially be interpreted into human language, thereby "edifying the hearers" (1 Cor 14:5,13). At Pentecost and Caesarea the speakers were praising God (Acts 2:1110:46). Paul referred to praying, singing praise, and giving thanks in tongues (1 Cor 14:14-17), as well as to the interpretation of tongues (1 Cor 14:5), and instructed those speaking in tongues to pray for the ability to interpret their tongues so others could understand them (1 Cor 14:13). While some limit speaking in tongues to speech addressed to God – "prayer or praise",[33] others claim that speech in tongues is revelation from God to the church, and when interpreted into human language by those embued with the gift of interpretation of tongues for the benefit of others present, may be considered equivalent to prophecy.[39]
  • Music. Musical interludes of glossolalia are sometimes described as singing in the Spirit. Some hold that singing in the Spirit is identified with singing in tongues in 1 Corinthians 14:13-19,[40] which they hold to be "spiritual or spirited singing", as opposed to "communicative or impactive singing" which Paul refers to as "singing with the understanding".[41]
  • Sign for unbelievers (1 Cor 14:22). Some assume that tongues are "a sign for unbelievers that they might believe",[42] and so advocate it as a means of evangelism. Others point out that Paul quotes Isaiah to show that "when God speaks to people in language they cannot understand, it is quite evidently a sign of God's judgment"; so if unbelievers are baffled by a church service they cannot understand because tongues are spoken without being interpreted, that is a "sign of God's attitude", "a sign of judgment".[43] Some identify the tongues in Acts 2 as the primary example of tongues as signs for unbelievers
  • Comprehension. Some say that speech in tongues was "not understood by the speaker".[33] Others assert that "the tongues-speaker normally understood his own foreign-language message".[44] This last comment seems to have been made by someone confusing the "gift of tongues" with the "gift of the interpretation of tongues, which is specified as a different gift in the New Testament, but one that can be given to a person who also has the gift of tongues. In that case, a person understands a message in tongues that he has previously spoken in an unknown language."[this quote needs a citation]

Pentecostal and charismatic practice[edit]

Because Pentecostal and charismatic beliefs are not monolithic, there is not complete theological agreement on speaking in tongues. Generally, however, it is agreed that speaking in tongues is a spiritual gift that can be manifested as either a human language or a heavenly supernatural language in three ways[citation needed]. The "sign of tongues" refers to xenoglossia, wherein one speaks an actual language he has never learned. The "gift of tongues" refers to a glossolalic utterance spoken by an individual and addressed to a congregation of, typically, other believers. Lastly, "praying in the spirit" is typically used to refer to glossolalia as part of personal prayer.[citation needed] Many Pentecostals and charismatics adhere to Paul's words in 1 Corinthians 14 which established guidelines on the public use of glossolalia in the church at Corinth.[citation needed]
The gift of tongues is often referred to as a "message in tongues".[citation needed] This use of glossolalia requires an interpretation so that the gathered congregation can understand the message. This is accomplished by the interpretation of tongues, another spiritual gift. There are two schools of thoughts concerning the nature of a message in tongues. One school of thought believes it is always directedto God as prayer, praise, or thanksgiving but is spoken in for the hearing and edification of the congregation. The other school of thought believes that a message in tongues can be a prophetic utterance inspired by the Holy Spirit.[citation needed] In this case, the speaker delivers a message to the congregation on behalf of God.
In addition to praying in the Spirit, many Pentecostal and charismatic churches practice what is known as singing in the Spirit.

Non-Christian practice[edit]

Other religious groups have been observed to practice some form of theopneustic glossolalia. It is perhaps most commonly in PaganismShamanism, and other mediumistic religious practices.[45] In Japan, the God Light Association believed that glossolalia could cause adherents to recall past lives.[46]
Glossolalia has even been postulated as an explanation for the Voynich manuscript.[47]
Certain Gnostic magical texts from the Roman period have written on them unintelligible syllables such as "t t t t n n n n d d d d d...". It is conjectured that these may be transliterations of the sorts of sounds made during glossolalia. The Coptic Gospel of the Egyptians also features a hymn of (mostly) unintelligible syllables which is thought to be an early example of Christian glossolalia.[citation needed]
In the 19th century, Spiritism was developed by the work of Allan Kardec, and the phenomenon was seen as one of the self-evident manifestations of spirits. Spiritists argued that some cases were actually cases of xenoglossia.
Glossolalia has also been observed in the Voodoo religion of Haiti,[48] as well as in the Hindu Gurus and Fakirs of India.[49][50]
Some Jewish groups sing or chant nigunim, which are often melodies not consisting of recognizable words, but of repetitive or other syllables. Sometimes, they are repetitive singing of recognizable words.[51][52]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ "Glossolalia n." A Dictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  2. Jump up^ Cheryl Bridges Johns and Frank Macchia, “Glossolalia,” The Encyclopedia of Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003), 413.
  3. Jump up^ γλῶσσα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4. Jump up^ λαλέω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. Jump up^ Mark 16:17 in Wycliffe's Bible
  6. Jump up^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed, 1989
  7. Jump up^ Samarin, William J. (1972). Tongues of Men and Angels: The Religious Language of Pentecostalism. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 308527.[page needed]
  8. Jump up^ Samarin, William J. (1972). Tongues of Men and Angels: The Religious Language of Pentecostalism. New York: Macmillan. p. 120. OCLC 308527.
  9. Jump up^ Samarin, William J. (1972). "Sociolinguistic vs. Neurophysiological Explanations for Glossolalia: Comment on Goodman's Paper". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion11 (3): 293–296. doi:10.2307/1384556.JSTOR 1384556.
  10. Jump up^ Goodman, Felicitas D. (1969). "Phonetic Analysis of Glossolalia in Four Cultural Settings". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion8 (2): 227–235.doi:10.2307/1384336JSTOR 1384336.
  11. Jump up to:a b Samarin, William J. (1972). Tongues of Men and Angels: The Religious Language of Pentecostalism. New York: Macmillan. p. 128. OCLC 308527.
  12. Jump up^ Samarin, William J. (1972). Tongues of Men and Angels: The Religious Language of Pentecostalism. New York: Macmillan. p. 2. OCLC 308527.
  13. Jump up^ Goodman, Felicitas D. (1972). Speaking in Tongues: A Cross-Cultural Study in Glossolalia. Chicago: University of Chicago PressISBN 978-0-226-30324-6OCLC 393056.[page needed]
  14. Jump up^ Martin 1995, pp. 88-89.
  15. Jump up to:a b Martin 1995, p. 90.
  16. Jump up^ Martin 1995, p. 91.
  17. Jump up^ Warfield, Benjamin B. (1918). Counterfeit Miracles. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 10ISBN 0-85151-166-XOCLC 3977281The writings of the so-called Apostolic Fathers contain no clear and certain allusions to miracle working or to the exercise of the charismatic gifts, contemporaneously with themselves.
  18. Jump up to:a b Saint Patrick. Confessio, sections 24 and 25
  19. Jump up^ Bernard, Serm. i. de Ascens., 2
  20. Jump up^ Thomas AquinasSumma Theologica, Question 176.
  21. Jump up^ Burgess, Stanley M. (1991). "Medieval and Modern Western Churches". In Gary B. McGee. Initial evidence: historical and biblical perspectives on the Pentecostal doctrine of spirit baptismPeabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-943575-41-4.OCLC 24380326.
  22. Jump up^ Lacy, John (1707). A Cry from the Desert. p. 32.OCLC 81008302.
  23. Jump up^ Hamilton, Michael Pollock (1975). The charismatic movementGrand Rapids, MichiganWilliam B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-8028-3453-9.OCLC 1008209.
  24. Jump up^ Burrough, Edward (1831) [1659]. "Epistle to the Reader" in Fox, GeorgeThe great mystery of the great whore unfolded; and Antichrist's kingdom revealed unto destructionThe Works of George Fox3. p. 13.OCLC 12877488.
  25. Jump up^ Irving, Edward (January 1832). "Facts Connected With Recent Manifestations of Spiritual Gifts"Fraser's Magazine4 (24): 754–761. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  26. Jump up^[unreliable source?]
  27. Jump up^[unreliable source?]
  28. Jump up to:a b c d Copeland, Lee. "Speaking in Tongues in the Restoration Churches", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Vol 24, No. 1
  29. Jump up^ Square brackets indicate faded parts that are no longer readable.
  31. Jump up^ Example: Christenson, Laurence, Speaking in tongues : and its significance for the church, Minneapolis, MN : Dimension Books, 1968.
  32. Jump up^ Example: Gromacki, Robert Glenn, The modern tongues movement, Nutley, N.J. : Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1973, ISBN 0-87552-304-8 (Originally published 1967)
  33. Jump up to:a b c Grudem, Wayne A. (1994). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrineLeicesterInter-Varsity Press. p. 1070. ISBN 978-0-85110-652-6.OCLC 29952151.
  34. Jump up to:a b General Presbytery of the Assemblies of God (11 August 2000). "The Baptism in the Holy Spirit: The Initial Experience and Continuing Evidences of the Spirit-Filled Life" (PDF)General Council of the Assemblies of God of the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  35. Jump up^ Grudem, Wayne A. (1994). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrineLeicesterInter-Varsity Press. p. 1072. ISBN 978-0-85110-652-6.OCLC 29952151.
  36. Jump up to:a b Assemblies of God (1961). "Statement of Fundamental Truths" (PDF)General Council of the Assemblies of God of the United States. Retrieved 9 June2009.
  37. Jump up^ "Baptism with the Holy Spirit"
  38. Jump up^ Grudem, Wayne A. (1994). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrineLeicesterInter-Varsity Press. p. 1073. ISBN 978-0-85110-652-6.OCLC 29952151.
  39. Jump up^ Masters, Peter; John C. Whitcomb (1988). The Charismatic Phenomenon. London: Wakeman Trust. p. 49.ISBN 978-1-870855-01-3OCLC 20720229.
  40. Jump up^ Johns, Donald A. (1988). Stanley M. Burgess, Gary B. McGee and Patrick H. Alexander, eds. Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic MovementsGrand Rapids, MichiganZondervan. p. 788. ISBN 978-0-310-44100-7.OCLC 18496801. Cited by Riss, Richard M. (28 July 1995). "Singing in the Spirit in the Holiness, Pentecostal, Latter Rain, and Charismatic Movements". Retrieved9 June 2009.
  41. Jump up^ Alford, Delton L. (1988). Stanley M. Burgess, Gary B. McGee and Patrick H. Alexander, eds. Dictionary of Pentecostal and charismatic movementsGrand Rapids, MichiganZondervan. p. 690. ISBN 978-0-310-44100-7.OCLC 18496801. Cited by Riss, Richard M. (28 July 1995). "Singing in the Spirit in the Holiness, Pentecostal, Latter Rain, and Charismatic Movements". Retrieved9 June 2009.
  42. Jump up^ "Questions about Tongues"General Council of the Assemblies of God of the United States. 2009. Retrieved10 June 2009.
  43. Jump up^ Grudem, Wayne A. (1994). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrineLeicesterInter-Varsity Press. p. 1075. ISBN 978-0-85110-652-6.OCLC 29952151.
  44. Jump up^ Masters, Peter; John C. Whitcomb (1988). The Charismatic Phenomenon. London: Wakeman Trust. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-870855-01-3OCLC 20720229.
  45. Jump up^ Fr. Seraphim Rose: Orthodoxy and the Religion of the Future, St Herman Press
  46. Jump up^ Whelan, Christal (2007). "Page Moved -- UC Press: Journals" p. 54.doi:10.1525/nr.2007.10.3.54.
  47. Jump up^ Gerry Kennedy, Rob Churchill (2004). The Voynich Manuscript. London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5996-X.
  48. Jump up^ "Tongue Speaking"
  49. Jump up^ "Sri Sri Anandamayi Ma's Spiritual Heritage"
  50. Jump up^ "Orthodoxy and the Religion of the Future"
  51. Jump up^ Haida Touchstone Sacred Dance Library, Accessed February 2014
  52. Jump up^ Music In Kaballah , The Nigun's Influence on the SoulFrom the book Shirat HaLev (The Song of the Heart) by Shmuel Stern - Translated by Gita Levi.Accessed February 2014


Further reading[edit]

  • Cartledge, Mark J., ed. Speaking in Tongues: Multi-Disciplinary PerspectivesPaternoster, 2006.
  • Ensley, Eddie. Sounds of wonder : speaking in tongues in the Catholic tradition. New York: Paulist Press, 1977.
  • Goodman, Felicitas D. Speaking in Tongues: A Cross-cultural Study of Glossolalia. Chicago, University of Chicago Press 1972.
  • Gromacki, Robert G.: "The Modern Tongues Movement", Baker Books, 1976, ISBN 978-0-8010-3708-5.
  • Harris, Ralph W. Spoken by the Spirit: Documented Accounts of 'Other Tongues' from Arabic to Zulu (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1973).
  • Hoekema, Anthony A. What about tongue-speaking? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans 1966.
  • Johnson, Luke Timothy. Religious Experience in Earliest Christianity: A Missing Dimension in New Testament Studies. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998. ISBN 0800631293
  • Keener, Craig. Miracles: The Credibility of the New Testament Accounts. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011.
  • Kelsey, Morton T. Tongue-Speaking: An Experiment in Religious Experience. NYC: Doubleday, 1964.
  • Kostelnik, Joseph, Prayer in the Spirit: The Missing Link. Prophetic Voice Publications, 1981.
  • MacArthur, John F.: "Charismatic Chaos". Zondervan, 1993, 416 pages, ISBN 978-0-310-57572-6.
  • Malony, H. Newton, and Lovekin, A. Adams, Glossolalia: Behavioral Science Perspectives on Speaking in Tongues, Oxford University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-19-503569-0
  • May, Jordan D. Global Witness to Pentecost: The Testimony of 'Other Tongues,' (Cleveland, TN: CPT Press, 2013).
  • Mills, Watson E. Speaking in Tongues: A Guide to Research on Glossolalia. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1986.
  • Roberson, Dave, Vital Role of Praying in Tongues
  • Roybal, Rory, Miracles or Magic?. Xulon Press, 2005.
  • Ruthven, Jon. On the Cessation of the Charismata: The Protestant Polemic on Post-biblical Miracles. 2nd ed. Word & Spirit Press, 2012.
  • Sadler, Paul M.: "The Supernatural Sign Gifts of the Acts Period" <>. Berean Bible Society <>, 2001, 63 pages, ISBN 1-893874-28-1.
  • Sherrill, John L. They Speak with Other Tongues. New York: McGraw Hill 1964.
  • Stronstad, Roger. The charismatic theology of St. Luke. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1984.
  • Tarr, Del. The Foolishness of God: A Linguist Looks at the Mystery of Tongues. Springfield, MO: Access Group Publishers, 2010.

External links[edit]

Religious perspectives