This amazing discovery in January–February, 1935, by James Leslie Starkey, written in carbon ink in Ancient Hebrew on clay ostraca, reveals the divine name of Yahweh (Lord) and was written when the babylonian army went forward to Jerusalem in the time of Zedekiah, the biblical character, the last king of Judah before the destruction of the kingdom by Babylon.
To my lord, Yaush, may YHWH cause my lord to hear tiding(s) of peace today, this very day! Who is your servant, a dog, that my lord remembered his [se]rvant? May YHWH make known(?) to my [lor]d a matter of which you do not know.
There are scriptures which reference what is written on, The Lachish Letters or Lachish Ostrak.
English Standard Version
when the army of the king of Babylon was fighting against Jerusalem and against all the cities of Judah that were left, Lachish and Azekah, for these were the only fortified cities of Judah that remained. Jeremiah 34:7.
English Standard Version
And he paid homage and said, “What is your servant, that you should show regard for a dead dog such as I?” 2 Samuel 9:8.
English Standard Version
Then Abishai the son of Zeruiah said to the king, “Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? Let me go over and take off his head.” 2 Samuel 16:9.
English Standard Version
And Hazael said, “What is your servant, who is but a dog, that he should do this great thing?” Elisha answered, “The LORD has shown me that you are to be king over Syria.” 2 Kings 8:13.
Links and much more info from the Wikipedia site, the free encyclopedia.
Lachish letter III replica (front side)
|Writing||Phoenician script / Paleo-Hebrew script|
|Created||c. 590 BC|
|Present location||British Museum and Israel Museum|
|Identification||ME 125701 to ME 125707, ME 125715a, IAA 1938.127 and 1938.128|
Text of the Letters
- Letter Number 2
- Letter Number 3
- Letter Number 4
- Letter Number 5
- Letter Number 6
- Letter Number 9
- British Museum Collection
- Lakhish Ostraca, c. 587 BCE
- Translation from Aḥituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past. Jerusalem: CARTA Jerusalem, 2008, pg. 60.
- Translation from Aḥituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past. Jerusalem: CARTA Jerusalem, 2008, pg. 63.
- Translation from Aḥituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past. Jerusalem: CARTA Jerusalem, 2008, pg. 70.
- Translation from Aḥituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past. Jerusalem: CARTA Jerusalem, 2008, pg. 77.
- Translation from Aḥituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past. Jerusalem: CARTA Jerusalem, 2008, pg. 80.
- Translation from Aḥituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past. Jerusalem: CARTA Jerusalem, 2008, pg. 85.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lachish letters.|
- Torczyner, Harry. Lachish I: The Lachish Letters. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1938.
- Lemaire, A. Inscriptions Hebraiques I: Les ostraca (Paris, Cerf, 1977).
- Rainey, A.F. "Watching for the Signal Fires of Lachis," PEQ 119 (1987), pp. 149–151.
- Lachish ostraca at the British Museum 
|תל לכיש (Hebrew)|
Main gate of Lachish
|Location||Southern District, Israel|
|Area||20 ha (49 acres)|
|Events||Siege of Lachish (701 BCE)|
|Excavation dates||1932–1938, 1966, 1968, 1973–1994|
|Archaeologists||James Leslie Starkey, Olga Tuffnell, Yohanan Aharoni, David Ussishkin|
Paleo-Hebrew letters on ostraca
The Fourth Expedition to Lachish
- King, Philip J. (August 2005). "Why Lachish Matters". Biblical Archaeology Review 31 (4). Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- David Ussishkin, The conquest of Lachish by Sennacherib, Tel Aviv University Institute of Archaeology, 1982, ISBN 965-266-001-9
- William H. Shea, Sennacherib's Description of Lachish and of its Conquest, Andrews University Seminary Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 171-180, 1988
- Samuel, Rocca (2012). The Fortifications of Ancient Israel and Judah 1200–586 BC. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 9781782005216.
- Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, Tell el Hesy (Lachish), Published for the Committee of the Palestine exploration fund by A. P. Watt, 1891
- J.L. Starkey et al., Lachish I (Tell ed Duweir): Lachish Letters Oxford University Press, 1938
- Olga Tufnell et. al, Lachish II., (Tell ed Duweir). The Fosse Temple, Oxford University Press, 1940
- Olga Tufnell, Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir) III: The Iron Age. The Wellcome-Marston Archaeological Research Expedition to the Near East. Text and Plates Volumes, Oxford University Press, 1953
- Olga Tufnell, Lachish (Tell el Duweir) IV : The Bronze Age, Published for the Trustees of the late Sir Henry Wellcome by the Oxford University Press, 1958.
- Yohanan Aharoni, Investigations at Lachish: The sanctuary and the residency (Lachish V), Gateway Publishers, 1975, ISBN 0-914594-02-8
- D. Ussishkin, Excavations at Tel Lachish - 1973–1977, Preliminary Report, Tel Aviv, vol. 5, pp. 1-97, 1978
- D. Ussishkin, Excavations at Tel Lachish 1978–1983: Second Preliminary Report, Tel Aviv, vol. 10, pp. 97-175, 1983
- D. Ussishkin, Excavations and Restoration Work at Tel Lachish: 1985–1994, Third Preliminary Report, Tel Aviv, vol. 23, pp. 3-60, 1996
- W. F. Albright, The Oldest Hebrew Letters: The Lachish Ostraca, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 70, pp. 11-1, 1938
- W. F. Albright, A Reëxamination of the Lachish Letters, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 73, pp. 16-21, 1939
- D. Ussishkin, Royal Judean Storage Jars and Private Seal Impressions, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 223, pp. 1-13, 1976
- D. Ussishkin, The Destruction of Lachish by Sennacherib and the Dating of the Royal Judean Storage Jars, Tel Aviv, vol. 4, pp. 28-60, 1977
- Barnett, R. D. "The Siege of Lachish." Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 8, pp. 161–164, 1958
- Bliss, Frederick. Numerous artifact drawings, also "Layer by Layer" drawings of Tell el-Hesy. Also an original attempt of the only el Amarna letter found at site, Amarna Letters, EA 333. A Mound of Many Cities; or Tell El Hesy Excavated, by Frederick Jones Bliss, PhD., explorer to the Fund, 2nd Edition, Revised. (The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.) c 1898.
- Grena, G.M. (2004). LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1. Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History. ISBN 0-9748786-0-X.
- Lawrence T. Geraty, Archaeology and the Bible at Hezekiah's Lachish, Andrews University Seminary Studies, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 27–37, 1987
- Magrill, Pamela, A researcher's guide to the Lachish collection in the British Museum, 2006, British Museum Research Publication 161, ISBN 0861591615, fully available online
- Arlene M. Rosen, Environmental Change and Settlement at Tel Lachish Israel, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 263, pp. 55–60, 1986
- D. Ussishkin, The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973–1994), Volumes I-V, Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology vol. 22, Tel Aviv University, 2004, ISBN 9652660175
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tel Lachish.|
|Rulers of Judah|
Life and Reign
In the Book of Mormon
|King of Judah|
597 – 587 or 586 BCE
|Judah conquered by|
Nebuchadnezzar II ofBabylon
|Leader of the House of David||Succeeded by|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zedekiah.|
- Jeconiah/Jehoiachin for more complete discussion of 587 vs. 586
- Zedekiah's Cave
- List of minor Biblical figures: Zidkijah
- Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257, 217.
- Bakon, Shimon. "Zedekiah: Last King of Judah", Jewish Bible Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2008
- Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study. Baker Academic. p. 159. ISBN 978-0801022920.
- Knight, Doug and Amy-Jill Levine (2011). The Meaning of the Bible. New York City: HarperOne. p. 31. ISBN 9780062067739.
- D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldean Kings in the British Museum (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1956) 73.
- Leslie McFall, “A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles,” Bibliotheca Sacra 148 (1991) 45.[dead link]
- Helaman 6:10
- Helaman 8:21
The Name of God http://lavia.org/EN_Name.html
The Oldest Hebrew Letters: The Lachish Ostraca http://www.jstor.org/stable/1354816?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
“The Prophet” in the Lachish Ostraca http://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/tp/lachish_thomas.pdf